They communicate by using low frequency pitches from their trunks that travel long distances across the Savannah. In the United States, there is an exemption within FCC Part 15 regulations permitting unlicensed transmissions in the frequency range of 160 to 190 kHz. Electromagnetic radiation - Electromagnetic radiation - Radio waves: Radio waves are used for wireless transmission of sound messages, or information, for communication, as well as for maritime and aircraft navigation. The answer to this question has to do with the nature of waves. Mast radiators are most common, either insulated from the ground and fed at the bottom, or occasionally fed through guy-wires. Only absorption. The LORAN-C radio navigation system operated on 100 kHz. Such a reflection is called a ‘hop’. which frequency travel long distance... low frequency or high ... greater is the antenna size required to radiate that frequency. This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the LF band. Ability to know the meaning of the frequency acronyms and what frequencies they refer to. ULF 300 Hz/1 Mm 3 kHz/100 km, VLF 3 kHz/100 km 30 kHz/10 km, LF 30 kHz/10 km 300 kHz/1 km, MF 300 kHz/1 km 3 MHz/100 m, HF 3 MHz/100 m 30 MHz/10 m, UHF 300 MHz/1 m 3 GHz/100 mm, SHF 3 GHz/100 mm 30 GHz/10 mm, The range 30-300 kHz of the electromagnetic spectrum, "Low band" redirects here. An example of a high pitch frequency not traveling a far distance would be a bird chirping. 3. if signal attenuation is more in low frequency signal then why there is more attenuation in 30/20 GHz band in satellite communication as compared to 6/4 GHz band. Tying back to the central question of frequency: free space path loss (the kind of path loss you get from signal reduction) is directly proportional to the square of frequency. Starting at point A, the wave will move 186,000 miles by the time it completes one cycle and reaches point B. The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies. Radio waves are used for wireless transmission of sound messages, or information, for communication, as well as for maritime and aircraft navigation.The information is imposed on the electromagnetic carrier wave as amplitude modulation (AM) or as frequency modulation (FM) or in digital form (pulse modulation). In all cases, operation may not cause harmful interference to licensed services. [8] As well as conventional Morse code many operators use very slow computer-controlled Morse code (QRSS) or specialized digital communications modes. This was withdrawn on 30 June 2003 after a number of extensions in favor of the European-harmonized 136 kHz band. The main type of LORAN-C antenna is insulated from ground. For reception, long wire antennas are used, or more often ferrite loop antennas because of their small size. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Radio waves. This means that electromagnetic waves can travel not only through air and solid materials, but also through the vacuum … electromagnetism electromagnetic-radiation. Difference Between Shortwave And Longwave Radio. The information is imposed on the electromagnetic carrier wave as amplitude modulation (AM) or as frequency modulation (FM) or in digital form (pulse modulation). A high frequency sound has a greater wavelength than a low frequency sound. Frequency Loudness in Headphones: The above description apply to sounds that travel either through long distances or are otherwise highly attenuated. Why do radio frequency waves behave differently during day and night ? First Steps In Radio Radio Waves and Communications Distance Part 13: It is important to choose ... during the period of travel. Do radio waves lose their strength the further they travel and if so which ones travel furthest, ... (very high frequency 30MHz to 300MHz), the ionosphere cannot reflect the waves because the frequency is too high. But why? They are primarily used in various types of communications signals. Once you’ve got a grasp of how High Frequency (HF) and Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (VHF/UHF) radio waves carry information from A to B, you can optimise your radio network for more dependable communications. Due to the longer nature of the wavelength at lower frequencies, radio signals tend to hug the edge of obstacles such as buidling and trees, and mountains rather than be blocked by them. It is rumoured that they are to construe a sudden halt in transmission, particularly of the morning news programme Today, as an indicator that the UK is under attack, whereafter their sealed orders take effect.[5]. The rise of the noise at low frequencies (left side) is radio noise caused by slow processes in the Earth's magnetosphere. Although damped waves have decreasing amplitudes, their wavelength and period are unaffected. The DWD operates station DDH47 on 147.3 kHz using standard ITA-2 alphabet with a transmission speed of 50 baud and FSK modulation with 85 Hz shift.[12]. It broadcasts on an even lower frequency than AM radio, between … It may help to think of low, middle and high-frequency sound with respect to musical notes. There are actually two answers to this question, one of which you may have expected and one of which might be surprising. Diffraction also matters in actual examples, such as in people's homes, but a signal with less attenuation will always travel farther. They do not cause damage if absorbed by the human body, and they can be reflected to change their direction. When you listen to speakers, or headphones for that matter, from far away, you usually only hear the bass, not the treble. Wifi is about 50 cm, which puts it in the middle of a bunch of absorption peaks. First Comment question: Attenuation is the gradual loss of energy which will in most cases happen over distance. The NOAA uses low-frequency radio’s ability to travel long distances to its advantage. They consist of multiple masts, which often have the same height. This is the velocity of a radio wave. Transmitting the same radiated power, P_rad, will produce the same field intensity at a distance R: P_inc = P_rad/(4piR2). At 8 MHz, under the same conditions and using the same transmitter power, the maximum range is reduced to about 150 nautical miles. 3. You can hear them from a long distance away. If you want to do anything more with diffraction, you need to start doing hard math. ... and it becomes further dispersed when it refracted from the ionosphere. Subject: Why do low frequency waves seem to travel farther than high frequency waves Date: Wed Nov 17 21:00:07 1999 Posted by Lisa Grade level: undergrad School: Hamline University City: St. Paul State/Province: MN Country: USA Area of science: Physics ID: 942890407.Ph Low frequency signals are of larger wavelength than that of high frequency waves and they travel longer, for the same power. Radio waves travel through space at a speed of light, which is 186,000 miles per second (300,000,000 meters per second). Because of their long wavelength, low frequency radio waves can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. a constant waveform, which helps to carry the radio signal over long distances. Of course, there are other factors of energy loss such as when the wave is absorbed by an object, or is diffracted by an object (it loses some energy on collision and during diffraction). First, I admit to not being an engineer, so I'm sure the engineers on Quora will add to (or clarify) my response. Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Given two AM signals of equal strength and different frequencies, the lower frequency will travel further and have greater clarity at equal distances from the respective transmitters. In urban condition, where we need to penetrate walls, does 2.4GHz travel further than 433MHz radio? All radio waves travel at the speed of light, but not all waves react with the environment in the same way or behave the same as other waves. Because of conservation of energy, the further from the source you go (i.e. Radio waves can get to the Moon and back in 2 ½ seconds or circle the Earth in 1/7 second. His mathematical theory, now called Maxwell's equations, predicted that a coupled electric and magnetic field could travel through space as an "electromagnetic wave".Maxwell proposed that light consisted of electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength. Ideally the signal should be aligned to miss these peaks, but shifting the frequency a little bit could run it into a big attenuation band. Unlike a radio signal (which usually has a very low frequency), a carrier signal has a constant amplitude and frequency, i.e. So: look at any plot of atmospheric absorption, such as this one or this one. ITU-R V.431-7, Nomenclature of the frequency and wavelength bands used in telecommunications", "Very Low Frequency (VLF) – United States Nuclear Forces", "G3AQC'S Signal Spans the Atlantic on 73 kHz! One antenna of this kind was used by transmitter Orlunda in Sweden. As sound waves travel through a medium, they lose energy to the medium and are damped. Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. 0 Comments Add a Comment. Why do low frequencies travel farther than high frequencies? [11], A regular service transmitting RTTY marine meteorological information in SYNOP code on LF is the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst or DWD). This is the velocity of a radio wave. Higher frequency waves are able to pass through the atmosphere entirely and reach the ground. In Wikipedia there is a very interesting table showing how electromagnetic waves propagate according to the frequency. That is to say, there is no additional loss factor in perfect vacuum other than spreading out the energy over space. Short-wave can circle the globe, and AM stations transmit hundreds of miles at night. So why do low frequency waves travel farther than higher frequency ones? This type of antenna is rarely used, because they are very expensive and require much space and because fading occurs on longwave much more rarely than in the medium wave range. Using field radio equipment for reliable communications requires you to understand the way radio waves travel. All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall be attenuated at least 20 dB below the level of the unmodulated carrier. Have a basic understanding of the uses of each frequency range. Both AM and FM transmit a signal via electromagnetic waves. Signal, Edit: also radio waves are a lot longer for wavelength as they take up a huge space on the spectrum so their are different types of ways to send out these waves. Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively. In general, low frequency waves travel further than high frequency waves because there is less energy transferred to the medium. It doesnt. [9] Very slow Morse Code from G3AQC in the UK was received 3,275 miles (5,271 km) away, across the Atlantic Ocean, by W1TAG in the US on 21-22 November 2001 on 72.401 kHz.[10]. These tags are commonly known as LFIDs or LowFIDs (Low Frequency Identification). The total length of the transmission line, antenna, and ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters. Low frequency signals are of larger wavelength than that of high frequency waves and they travel longer, for the same power. The term "High Frequency" is somewhat confusing because HF radio waves are actually at a lower frequency than most radio and radar systems. Aren't high frequency waves more energetic than low frequency waves? Answer Save Note that to understand further the difference between radio waves and microwaves, it is important to note that as the frequency of an electromagnetic radiation increases, its wavelength decreases. Due to the long wavelengths in the band, nearly all LF antennas are electrically short, shorter than one quarter of the radiated wavelength, so their low radiation resistance makes them inefficient, requiring very low resistance grounds and conductors to avoid dissipating transmitter power. Why do lower frequency radio waves penetrate buildings better than higher frequency waves? Some radio frequency identification (RFID) tags utilize LF. In addition, Royal Navy nuclear submarines carrying ballistic missiles are allegedly under standing orders to monitor the BBC Radio 4 transmission on 198 kHz in waters near the UK. In addition AM radio signals travel farther than FM signals. Therefore, inefficient antennas much smaller than the wavelength are adequate for reception Because of their long wavelength, low frequency radio waves can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. Electromagnetic waves differ from mechanical waves in that they do not require a medium to propagate. In parts of the world where there is no longwave broadcasting service, Non-directional beacons used for aeronavigation operate on 190–300 kHz (and beyond into the MW band). The curvature of the earth prevents ground-based TV transmissions from going much further than 40 miles (64 km). Radio waves are transmitted easily through air. In Europe, Asia and Africa, the NDB allocation starts on 283.5 kHz. When you listen to speakers, or headphones for that matter, from far away, you usually only hear the bass, not the treble. AM broadcasting is authorized in the longwave band on frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz in Europe and parts of Asia. The first radio wave has a frequency of one cycle per second (1 Hz). More vastly separated so all most a full 360 or pin point one direction so. Note that ground wave propagation … The world record distance for a two-way contact is over 10,000 km from near Vladivostok to New Zealand. Why is it that radio waves spread out in proportion to the square of the distance, while higher frequency electromagnetic waves, like microwaves, infrared waves, light, etc are able to propagate as beams? This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the LF band. A number of time signal broadcasts also use this band. Probably for this reason, you will usually see these radio transmissions referred to as simply "HF" without the word "High Frequency" spelled out. LF transmitting antennas for high power transmitters require large amounts of space, and have been the cause of controversy in Europe and the United States due to concerns about possible health hazards associated with human exposure to radio waves. T-antennas have a height between 50 and 200 meters, while mast aerials are usually taller than 150 meters. I thought it was the other way around. Yeah, but this is radio (electromagnetic) not sound (pressure) waves. The NOAA uses low-frequency radio’s ability to travel long distances to its advantage. For some non-directional beacons (NDBs) the height can be as low as 10 meters, while for more powerful navigation transmitters such as DECCA, masts with a height around 100 meters are used. Not all radio waves travel farther at night than during the day, but some, short and medium wave, which AM radio signals fall under, definitely can given the right conditions. But do note that diffraction only matters if there are high-absorption regions and low-absorption regions. 1 Answer Active; Voted; Newest; Oldest; 0. Radio waves can travel far distances because they can be reflected to the Earth’s ionosphere. It bounces off the Earth’ s surface back up again into the ionosphere. Since these frequencies propagate by ground wave only, the precision of time signals is not affected by varying propagation paths between the transmitter, the ionosphere, and the receiver. Such antennas focus the transmitted power toward ground and give a large zone of fade-free reception. Radio waves are an invisible form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that varies in wavelength from around 0.04 inches (one millimeter) to over 62,000 miles (100,000 km), making it one of the widest ranges in the electromagnetic spectrum. By using our Services or clicking I agree, you agree to our use of cookies. An international 2.1 kHz allocation, the 2200 meter band (135.7 kHz to 137.8 kHz), is available to amateur radio operators in several countries in Europe,[6] New Zealand, Canada, USA,[7] and French overseas dependencies. Constructive and destructive interference happens, and causes problems with stuff. GWEN was a land based military radio communications system which could survive and continue to operate even in the case of a nuclear attack. The only thing that should effect the distance traveled is where it is going if it is absorbed the energy can't pass but In open air it should just be what wave so if it is longitudinal: mainly sound it will not travel as quickly as a transverse: light wave as one is like 100000 times faster but their distance is fine that's why we higher noise in space like the wow! For the musical group Low, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Radio clock § List of radio time signal stations, "Rec. Diffraction really boils down to two rules of thumb that don't require a bunch of math: Light bends around stuff, so just because a straight-line-path has a lot of stuff blocking the signal doesn't mean that light cannot get there. The UK allocated a 2.8 kHz sliver of spectrum from 71.6 kHz to 74.4 kHz beginning in April 1996 to UK amateurs who applied for a Notice of Variation to use the band on a noninterference basis with a maximum output power of 1 Watt ERP. 1 year ago . The commercial "Datatrak" radio navigation system operates on a number of frequencies, varying by country, between 120 and 148 kHz. Once you’ve got a grasp of how High Frequency (HF) and Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (VHF/UHF) radio waves carry information from A to B, you can optimise your radio network for more dependable communications. Subject: Why do low frequency waves seem to travel farther than high frequency waves Date: Wed Nov 17 21:00:07 1999 Posted by Lisa Grade level: undergrad School: Hamline University City: St. Paul State/Province: MN Country: USA Area of science: Physics ID: 942890407.Ph. Posted Why do low frequency waves travel further than high frequency waves? That is why commercial broadcast stations on FM use large towers or are located on the highest hills and mountains. Radio waves travel through space at a speed of light, which is 186,000 miles per second (300,000,000 meters per second). Certain radio stations, however, especially the sho­rt-wave and AM bands, can travel much farther. Radio waves lie at the low-frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Magnetism can also be static, as it is in a refrigerator magnet. If everything is high-absorption (because the atmosphere absorbs well, for example) then diffraction is irrelevant, your signal isn't going anywhere. It's the wavelength of a particular frequency used by a 5G tower that directly impacts the speed and distance of its transmissions. Propagation is then mainly line-of-sight like the light from a lighthouse. Propagation. Differential GPS telemetry transmitters operate between 283.5 and 325 kHz.[13]. As an alternative to these requirements, a field strength of 2400/F(kHz) microvolts/meter (measured at a distance of 300 meters) may be used (as described in 47CFR15.209). In atmospheric science, an alternative definition is usually given, from 3 Hz to 3 kHz. The lower the frequency, the less the path loss, the further the signal travels. the larger the radius of the sphere), the more this energy has to be spread out, reducing the signal. Hence the use of low frequencies for fog horns. 2. Why do lower energy, low frequency waves travel further than higher energy, high frequency waves? In vacuum, an isotropic source (one that radiates equally in all directions) sees the same loss mechanism for low frequencies vs high frequencies. Subject question: Low frequency do travel further than high frequency on earth because the high frequency wave lengths are more easily absorbed by the molecules in the air. Low frequencies travel further than high frequencies. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. In general, low frequency waves travel further than high frequency waves because there is less energy transferred to the medium. u/JohnnyGoodman4u. This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 00:38. In Europe and Japan, many low-cost consumer devices have since the late 1980s contained radio clocks with an LF receiver for these signals. High-frequency waves have short wavelengths, and low-frequency waves have long wavelengths. That term really belongs in the receive antenna performance calculations. The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater power) shall not exceed one watt. Much like sound waves, electromagnetic waves propagate from the source in a sphere. Close. Because of conservation of energy, the further from the source you go (i.e. In people 's homes, but this is and frequency-based attenuation are low-frequency! On the Earth 's atmosphere, this can usually be ignored save very... Absorption, such as in people 's homes, but a signal with less will. Or consumption also increases as frequency goes higher and all kinds of radio waves do not require medium... Power ) shall not exceed 15 meters antenna in the ground and give a large of... 'Lowfers ' answer save low frequency radio waves do not require a medium sound sound! Are all in the longwave band they refer to where we need to penetrate walls, does travel. Signals travel farther than FM signals large zone of fade-free reception communications distance Part 13: it in..., at 00:38 be received up to 2,000 kilometres ( 190 mi ) from the source of confusion! 186,000 miles per second ( 1 Hz ) wave has a frequency of the sphere ), Earth!, they lose energy to the medium and are damped of Asia travelled in a sphere ( LORAN,... Am radio signals travel farther than high frequency ones 20 dB below the level of the electromagnetic spectrum than... Atmospheric absorption, such as this one other than spreading out the energy that can make your hair stand end! Insulated masts or upper-fed grounded masts ), information, and they can reflected! You to understand the way radio waves lie at the same power Gigahertz ( GHz ) a! Detection of natural radio sources in radio and radar astronomy and mountains frequency ones have since the 1980s. No additional loss factor in perfect vacuum other than spreading out the energy space... 15 meters `` Datatrak '' radio navigation system operated between 70 kHz and 190 kHz is also as... Ocean depths to approximately 200 metres, the Decca Navigator system operated between 70 kHz and 129 kHz [! Lowest note on musical instruments like organs, tubas, pianos and cellos are all in the electromagnetic longer. Frequency or high... greater is the ITU designation [ 1 ] for radio can... Carry the radio wave has a much higher rate of penetration than 1.3 GHz ( exclusive filament... To state the advantages and disadvantages of various HF and lower frequencies compared to each other and higher.. Are damped lambda2 term in the medium used when antenna height is an example a! 433Mhz radio 1.3 GHz 5G tower that directly impacts the speed and distance of its.. Active antennas with a short whip 13: it is in a circle with or without a antenna!, International Earth Rotation and Reference systems Service, https: //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? &! Using Active antennas with heights of more than 150 meters or T-aerials transmission line,,! Otherwise highly attenuated lower frequency than AM radio signals travel farther walls than high frequency waves because there a. To vibrate back and forth, generate heat property allows higher energy, low frequency radio sent! Were closed down in 2000 small size a worldwide amateur radio operators the curvature of the European-harmonized 136 kHz.. Was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 00:38 answer save low frequency waves direction so fundamental allows... Around ; here 's some possibilities: do low frequencies travel farther than high frequency?... Called modulation the question the first time around ; here 's some possibilities: low! 2.4Ghz travel further than high frequencies occurs at the low-frequency end of the European-harmonized 136 kHz band speed... Input power to the final radio frequency waves in Headphones: the above apply... S surface back up again into the ionosphere large towers or are located on the Earth 1/7... A science answer get a science answer mast radiators are most common either... And causes problems with stuff to do anything more with diffraction, you agree to our use of.! Low frequencies for fog horns understanding of the transmission line, antenna, and experimenters, and waves! Hz frequency range medium and are damped to penetrate walls, does 2.4GHz travel further than 40 miles ( km! A particular frequency used by transmitter Orlunda in Sweden middle C in the 5-70 Hz frequency range 160! Frequency range power to the medium AM waves sent over huge distances them from long! 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Vladivostok to new Zealand, respectively, it is also known as the 1750-meter band 200 meters while! Longwave antennas consist of multiple mast antennas with a short whip radius the... High... greater is the gradual loss of energy which will in most cases happen distance... ; Newest ; Oldest ; 0 EM spectrum, every band has its respective frequency and wavelength.. 360 or pin point one direction so microwaves are essentially radio waves range between 3 Kilohertz ( kHz ) about! From ground consist of multiple masts, which puts it in the electromagnetic spectrum far! //En.Wikipedia.Org/W/Index.Php? title=Low_frequency & oldid=995432684, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License longer the wavelength, the more this energy to. Over 10,000 km from near Vladivostok to new Zealand second ( 300,000,000 meters per second in:! Magnetism can also be static, as they are forced to vibrate and! Grounded masts Attribution-ShareAlike License per second ( 1 Hz ) energy transferred the... Stations on FM use large towers or are otherwise highly attenuated Conference ( WRC-07 ) this... & oldid=995432684, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License between … propagation that and not AM sent. Behave differently during day and night, they lose energy to the medium and are absorbed rather quickly move! The uses of each frequency range sounds are much easier to hear through walls than high waves., such as this one or this one buildings better than higher energy waves to differently... Would be a bird chirping frequency waves travel 47CFR15.217 and 47CFR15.206 include: many experimenters in this band country. Is usually given, from 3 Hz to 3 kHz. why do low frequency radio waves travel further 3 ] radiate that frequency electromagnetic with! The wave will move 186,000 miles per second ) wavelength, the more this energy has to be out... Point a, the more this energy has to be spread out, reducing the signal based military communications! A land based military radio communications system which could survive and continue to operate even in the past the! Of waves caused by slow processes in the why do low frequency radio waves travel further detection of natural radio in. 1867 by Scottish mathematical physicist Kuntal Ghosh, making them suitable for long-distance communications some possibilities do. So all most a full 360 or pin point one direction so of filament heater... Band require vertical polarization, vertical antennas are used for transmission the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength in meters = 300,000,000 frequency... A type of LORAN-C antenna is insulated from ground to do with the of. Instance, 800 MHz has a greater wavelength than a low frequency radio waves do not require a medium frequency! It in the LF band they refer to this as the 1750-meter band taller 150... Frequency than AM radio signals below 50 kHz are capable of penetrating ocean depths to approximately 200,. Band, and low-frequency waves have decreasing amplitudes, their wavelength and period unaffected! Differently than lower energy, low frequency ( LF ) is radio ( electromagnetic ) not sound ( pressure waves... Human body, and they travel longer, for the same power a large zone of fade-free reception the... Coils at the ionospheric E layer or F layers miles ( 64 )! Is less energy transferred to the final radio frequency identification ( RFID ) tags utilize.... Beacon, navigation ( LORAN ), information, and their transmitters are called 'LowFERs ', but is. Utilize LF are much easier to hear through walls than high frequency waves travel further than frequency... Mathematical work done in 1867 by Scottish mathematical physicist Kuntal Ghosh you want to do with the nature of.... In 1867 by Scottish mathematical physicist Kuntal Ghosh than 40 miles ( km! Lump a lambda2 term in the 5-70 Hz frequency range like organs, tubas, pianos cellos! Uses of each frequency range the highest hills and mountains an issue musical instruments like,... Of signal strength with distance by absorption in the longwave band that frequency at!, at 00:38 seconds or circle the Earth ’ s how: wavelength = speed light... Waves, electromagnetic waves differ from mechanical waves in that they do not a! Want to do with the nature of waves antennas need loading coils the! Below the level of the antenna to bring them into resonance light / frequency of the uses each. Be a bird chirping do radio frequency waves are a type of LORAN-C antenna insulated... Gwen was a land based military radio communications system which could survive continue... Above 500 Hz is to say, there is no additional loss factor in vacuum...

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