However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia leading to a three-year confrontation. Nevertheless, a Japanese invasion force led by Kiyotake Kawaguchi landed in Miri on 16 December 1941 and conquered Kuching on 24 December 1941, with British ground forces retreating to Singkawang in neighbouring Dutch Borneo. To the north, the Baram, Limbang and Trusan Rivers drain into the Brunei Bay. Beaches in Sarawak include Pasir Panjang[118] and Damai beaches in Kuching,[119] Tanjung Batu beach in Bintulu,[120] and Tanjung Lobang[121] and Hawaii beaches in Miri. The description is composed by our digital data assistant. The state assembly passes laws on subjects that are not under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Malaysia such as land administration, employment, forests, immigration, merchant shipping and fisheries. [146] In 1854, Alfred Russel Wallace visited Sarawak. [20], Foragers are known to have lived around the west mouth of the Niah Caves (located 110 kilometres (68 mi) southwest of Miri) 40,000 years ago. [275][274] As with the many other indigenous peoples of Sarawak, the majority of Orang Ulu are Christians. [199], Infrastructure development in Sarawak is overseen by the Ministry of Infrastructure Development and Transportation, successor to the Ministry of Infrastructure Development and Communications (MIDCom) after it was renamed in 2016. However, in the decades following federation, restrictive laws and connections to businesses have meant that the media is a largely state-owned enterprise. In Sarawak, the Dayaks as a whole can be subdivided into numerous group. This wildlife centre has a thriving population of healthy adolescent and young adult semi-wild Orangutans. [208] Mobile telecommunication infrastructure, specifically broadcast towers, are built and managed by Sacofa Sdn Bhd (Sacofa Private Limited), which enjoys a monopoly in Sarawak after the company was granted a 20-year exclusivity deal on the provision, maintenance and leasing of towers in the state. The Japanese otherwise preserved the Brooke administrative structure and appointed the Japanese to important government positions. The remaining ports are under the respective state port authorities. [93][94], Unlike states in Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak is divided into divisions, 12 in all, each headed by an appointed resident. [39] Expanding trade led to the formation of the Borneo Company Limited in 1856. The ports of Kuching and Sibu are built some distance from the coast on rivers while Bintulu and Miri are close to the coastline where the hills stretch right to the South China Sea. The climate is stable throughout the year except for the two monsoons, with average daily temperature varying between 23 °C (73 °F) in the morning to 32 °C (90 °F) in the afternoon at coastal areas. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia; Bakun Dam, one of the largest dams in Southeast Asia, is located on one of its tributaries, the Balui River. After ten weeks of fighting there, the Allied forces surrendered on 1 April 1942. [264] Despite modern influences, Iban still observe many of their traditional rituals such as Gawai Antu (festival of the dead) and Gawai Dayak (Harvest Festival). Sarawak contributed 10.1% of Malaysia's GDP in the nine years leading up to 2013, making it the third largest contributor after Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The combined throughput of the four primary ports was 61.04 million freight weight tonnes (FWT) in 2013. [51] After the surrender of Japan, the Japanese surrendered to the Australian forces at Labuan on 10 September 1945. Sarawak Chinese are primarily Buddhist and Christian,[266] and speak a multitude of dialects: Cantonese, Foochow, Hakka, Hokkien, Teochew, and Henghua (Putian people). Search. [219] The state owned Hornbill Skyways is an aviation company that largely provides private chartered flights and flight services for public servants. The opposition in Sarawak has consistently alleged that the ruling coalition uses various types of vote-buying tactics in order to win elections. With a population of approximately 3000, the Kelabit are inhabitants of Bario - a remote plateau in the Sarawak Highlands, slightly over 1,200 meters above sea level. [278] English is still spoken in the legal courts, and state legislative assembly. [82] This party would later become the backbone of the Sarawak BN coalition. [79] The first political party, the Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP), was established in 1959, followed by the Parti Negara Sarawak (PANAS) in 1960 and the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) in 1961. [262] There are more than 50 tribes still existing or extinct in Sarawak but only the major tribes are listed in the Malaysian Federal Constitution. [207] According to a 2015 article, household internet penetration in Sarawak was lower than Malaysian national average, 41.2% versus 58.6%, with 58.5% of internet use being in urban areas and 29.9% in rural areas. [178], Electricity in Sarawak, supplied by the state-owned Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB),[179] is primarily sourced from traditional coal fired power plants and thermal power stations using LNG,[179][180] but diesel based sources and hydroelectricity are also utilised. [171] It also specialises in the manufacture of food and beverages, wood-based and rattan products, basic metal products, and petrochemicals,[100] as well as cargo and air services and tourism. [117], Sarawak is divided into three ecoregions. However, the state economy is less diversified and still heavily dependent upon the export of primary commodities when compared to Malaysia overall. [235], With the establishment of SCORE and the associated potential of 1.6 million more jobs by 2030,[242] the state government allocated RM1 billion from 2016 to 2020 to a Skills Development Fund for vocational education. [101] The regiment, renowned for its jungle tracking skills, served in the campaign to end the intertribal wars in Sarawak. The population of Kuching Division (year 2010 census) was 705,546. [294] However, during the chieftainship of Abdul Rahman Ya'kub, the Constitution of Sarawak was amended to make the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the head of Islam in Sarawak and empower the state assembly to pass laws regarding Islamic affairs. The northeast monsoon occurs between November and February, bringing heavy rainfall while the southwest monsoon, which occurs between March and October, brings somewhat less rainfall. Other plants includes 1,000 species of orchids, 757 species of ferns, and 260 species of palm. [249], Sub-ethnic groups of Dayak in Sarawak (2014)[8], The 2015 census of Malaysia reported a population of 2,636,000 in Sarawak, making it the fourth most populous state. [18] A popular alternative explanation is that it is a contraction of the four Malay words purportedly uttered by Pangeran Muda Hashim (uncle to the Sultan of Brunei), "Saya serah pada awak" (I surrender it to you), when he gave Sarawak to James Brooke, an English explorer in 1841. [114], Sarawak can be divided into two geological zones: the Sunda Shield, which extends southwest from the Batang Lupar River (near Sri Aman) and forms the southern tip of Sarawak, and the geosyncline region, which extends northeast to the Batang Lupar River, forming the central and northern regions of Sarawak. [305] The Alliance Party (later regrouped into Barisan Nasional) has ruled Sarawak since the formation of Malaysia. The capital is Kuching. [314] Ethnic groups also celebrate their own festivals. [55][56], Lacking the resources to rebuild Sarawak after the war, Charles Vyner Brooke decided to cede Sarawak as British Crown Colony and a Cession Bill was put forth in the Council Negri (now Sarawak State Legislative Assembly), which was debated for three days. [158][159] Sarawak's mega-dam policies, such as the Bakun Dam and Murum Dam projects, have submerged thousands of hectares of forest and displaced thousands of indigenous people. This led to several blockades by indigenous tribes during the 1980s and 1990s against logging companies encroaching on their lands. Federation of Sarawak is ranked 210,199 th in the world and 8 th in Battleship for Most Authoritarian, with 157.64 milliStalins . English and Malay are the two official languages of the state; there is no official religion. The Julau MP said this is because the population of the state has a Dayak majority, but the group is under-represented in main leadership roles. [307][308] The Sarawak State Museum houses a collection of artefacts such as pottery, textiles, and woodcarving tools from various ethnic tribes in Sarawak, as well as ethnographic materials of local cultures. [154] Deforestation has affected the life of indigenous tribes, especially the Penan, whose livelihood is heavily dependent on forest produce. At the turn of the century, the estimated population was 400,000. Reece, Sarawak Literary Society, 1993", "A look at the civil administration of Sarawak", "Thrill is gone, state museum stuck in time — Public", "SARAWAK HL Deb 15 November 1956 vol 200 cc328-68", "Prelude to invasion: covert operations before the re-occupation of Northwest Borneo, 1944–45", "Surrender to Major-General Wootten at Labuan", "Celebrating Batu Lintang Camp liberation day on Sept 11", "British Military Administration (August 1945 – April 1946)", "Sarawak as a British Crown Colony (1946–1963)", "Formation of Malaysia 16 September 1963", "Chapter Six: Borneo Territories and Brunei", "Trust and Non-self governing territories", "Brunei Revolt breaks out – 8 December 1962", United Nations Treaty Registered No. Samarahan is the second most populated district followed by Sri Aman, Betong, Sarikei, Sibu, Kapit, Mukah, Bintulu and Miri, while Limbang is the least populated district with an estimated 45,500 people in 2006. Sarawak (/səˈrɑːwɒk/; Malay: [saˈrawaʔ]) is a state of Malaysia. [66][67] Thousands of Sarawak communist members went into Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, and underwent training with the Communist Party of Indonesia. State Secretary Sarawak State Secretary Office, Level 20 , Wisma Bapa Malaysia Petra Jaya, 93502 Kuching Tel :082-441957 Fax :082-441677 Email: 555999@sarawak.gov.my INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING IN SARAWAK, MALAYSIA", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Sarawak Forestry Corporation – About Us – FAQ", "About Sarawak Biodiversity Centre – Profile", "Malaysian palm oil destroying forests, report warns", "Sarawak, Malaysia Infringement of the Rights of Indigenous People by Continuous Illegal Logging Practices", "Rumah Nor: A Land Rights Case for Malaysia", "Earth Island News – Borneo Project – Indigenous victory overturned", "Power, profit, and pollution: dams and the uncertain future of Sarawak", "Battle Against Illegal Logging in Sarawak Begins", "Sarawak establishes 2.2M acres of protected areas, may add 1.1M more", "Types and Categories of Sarawak's Forests", "Impact of oil palm plantations on peatland conversion in Sarawak 2005-2010", "Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia. [150][151] The Sarawak Biodiversity Centre was set up in 1997 for the conservation, protection, and sustainable development of biodiversity in the state. A 2006 government program to have integrated hospitals led to numerous universities starting programs to teach traditional medicine and major hospitals, including Sarawak General Hospital, providing traditional therapies. [274] The Kelabit and Lun Bawang people are known for their production of fragrant rice. A handful of cities line the South China Sea coast. A village health promoter program, where volunteers are provided with basic medical training, was established in 1981 but difficulty in providing medical supplies to remote villages, as well as a lack of incentive, resulted in a decline of the program. In Sarawak. It is ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse; major ethnic groups including Iban, Malay, Chinese, Melanau, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu. [59] In 1950 all anti-cession movements in Sarawak ceased after a clamp-down by the colonial government. Under the Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1998, Sarawak natives are given permissions to hunt for a restricted range of wild animals in the jungles but should not possess more than 5 kilograms (11 lb) of meat. At the foot of Mount Santubong, Kuching, is Sarawak Cultural Village, a "living museum" that showcases the various ethnic groups carrying out traditional activities in their respective traditional houses. The coastal region is rather low-lying and flat with large areas of swamp and other wet environments. Should its population be 9.35% of the national total, Sarawak should have a population of 2,577,404 in 2010. Weng, who had moved to China in the mid-1960s but nonetheless retained control of the CCO, pushed for a continued armed insurrection against the government in spite of this agreement. The other longhouses are Rumah Manggat at Menyang Taih, Rumah Kino at Menyang Sedi, Rumah Griffin at Nanga Jengin, Rumah Jangong at Pala Taong, Rumah Ninting at Nanga Jambu, Rumah Brown at Nanga Stapang, … Population of Sarawak, 1947-2010 Lam Chee Kheung ýý0 imik Ilb Arkib GN Arkib GN 635 B6 " 0 Aim-k A ýý 0 0 *1 L213 2013 . [228], In comparison to the prevalence of health services in urban regions, much of rural Sarawak is only accessible by river transport, which limits access. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri, Sibu, and Bintulu. The last United Nations statistics in 2001 estimated Sarawak's sawlog exports at an average of 14,109,000 cubic metres (498,300,000 cu ft) per year between 1996 and 2000. It aims to overcome the low priority and coverage of Peninsular-based media and to solidify the representation of Sarawak, and generally of East Malaysia. Department of Veterinary Services (Malaysia). [57] Despite the resistance, Sarawak became a British Crown colony on 1 July 1946. The Dayaks were the largest indigenous group in the interior: comprising Iban, Bidayuh and other interior tribes such as the Kayan, Kelabit, Kenyah, Lun Bawang and Penan, while coastal areas were dominated by the Sarawak local Malays, Melanau, Bruneian and Kedayan. The non profit Sarawak Hospice Society was established in 1998 to promote this program. [315] Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia to declare the Gawai Dayak celebration a public holiday. Dayak which means upstream or inland, is used as a blanket term by the Islamic coastal population for over 200 tribal groups. The Bidayuh are indigenous to the areas that comprise the modern day divisions of Kuching and Serian. [160][161] Since 2013, the proposed Baram Dam project has been delayed due to ongoing protests from local indigenous tribes. [195] The public and private bodies in Sarawak hold a biannual event to award the Sarawak Hornbill Tourism Award, an award for achievements within various categories, to recognise businesses and individuals for their efforts in the development of tourism within the state. The Orang Ulu have about 30 different language dialects. In 1994, Sarawak General Hospital Department of Radiotherapy, Oncology & Palliative Care instituted an at-home care, or hospice care, program for cancer patients. Curated by Knoema’s data analysts to deliver leading short-term and long-term indicators and forecasts from trusted sources for each of the covered industries. [39][note 2] He was only allowed to return 17 years later after Sarawak had become part of Malaysia. 21 Dec. sarawak population by race . [80][note 6][81] Stephen Kalong Ningkan was the first Chief Minister of Sarawak from 1963 to 1966 following his landslide victory in local council elections. In 1960, the overall literacy rate was 25%, with a heavy slant in the literacy rate towards the Chinese population, 53%, compared with that of indigenous peoples which was substantially lower, only 17%. [100] In 2014, 58% of the population resided in urban areas with the remainder in rural areas, but over the next 10 years it is predicted that the urban population would rise to 65%. There are 3 hydroelectric dams as of 2015[update] at Batang Ai,[181] Bakun,[182] and Murum,[183] with several others under consideration. There are over 2,000 tree species in Sarawak. [323][324] Sarawak hosted the Malaysian SUKMA Games in 1990 and 2016,[325] and was overall champion in the 1990, 1992, and 1994 SUKMA games. [168] However, the urban-rural income gap remained a major problem in Sarawak. Hospitals in Sarawak typically provide the full gamut of health care options, from triage to palliative care for the terminally ill. Ethnics. 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