Geographical Journal, 1950. The Polynesian language that eventually emerged was a combination of several primitive Aryan tongues. Allison Gramolini, Colgate University This suggests that this ancient human might have been able to cross a couple of very short water gaps in the Lesser Sumba chain of islands in order to reach Flores. in 1994 identified three distinct gene clusters shared by most Polynesians in the study. Web. Specialized stone adzes were used by prehistoric islanders in Melanesia for a variety of purposes, including cutting down trees for canoe-building, hollowing out built canoes, and even clearing vegetation for agriculture (Clark, 19). One of the supposed theories is the Indigenous Taiwanese theory also an explanation on "Pre-European Polynesia." Then a more modern explorer, Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Peru to Polynesia largely by ocean currents, suggesting South America was the Polynesian homeland. Timetable: 2 lessons. Oceania includes all the islands in the central and south Pacific Ocean. “Beyond Kon-Tiki: Did Polynesians Sail to South America?” Science vol. 10 Jan. 2011. The Polynesian peoples themselves provide clues to their prehistoric origins via DNA testing. For example, the presence of similar genetic mutations in Hawaiians and Samoans suggests common family lineages in two geographically distant places. The “Express Train” and “Slow Boat” theorie s assert that the migration of the Proto-Polynesian people began around 6,000 years before present (BP) or around 10,000 years BP respectively. It could be speculated that disagreements between factions could have created tension, encouraging one or more families to settle elsewhere, and that one “noble” family’s “subjects” would follow. The Voyage of the Raft "Kon-tiki"; an Adventurous Inquiry into the Origin of the Polynesians. Teaching and Learning Activities: Research the scientific theories for the origin of the Polynesian settlers. Toitehuatahi(Toi), another early visitor from Hawaiki (the traditional Māori place of origin), is an important ancesto… The theory making Taiwan the ancestral Polynesian homeland rested partly on evidence from mitochondrial DNA inherited only from mothers. The common DNA, which is spread across the Pacific, suggests common ancestry of research subjects despite their East-West Pacific divide. Many New Zealand place names, preserved by later generations of Māori people, recall his journey. This research was conducted in Hawai‘i by Rebecca Cann, professor of genetics and molecular biology at the University of Hawai‘i John A. Burns School of Medicine. (2000) and ... with Tuvalu providing a stepping stone for migration into the Polynesian Outlier communities in Melanesia and Micronesia. 2011. This is especially true of fine-grained basalt, which can be traced to its geologic source, further linking the various regions of the Pacific and supporting the Lapita-migration model. However little evidence supports his theory apart from the use of sweet potatoes in both areas. Put simply, prehistoric human colonization was social as well as biological, active as well as passive” (Terrell, 3). Honolulu, HI: Bess, 2002. Finney, Ben. He argued that it was not possible for the Polynesians to have sailed east from Melanesia into the Polynesian triangle because both the winds and currents constantly would have been against them. Does Heyerdahl convincingly prove his theories? Because migration from South America to the Polynesian Islands would be easily facilitated by prevalent easterlies in the tropical Pacific, several prominent scholars made claims that islanders were descended from ancient Peruvians or other Amerindian peoples. The large arrow shows the actual origin of the Māori people’s Polynesian ancestors – around Taiwan. "The Peopling of the Pacific." La théorie de l’origine amérindienne. Cette théorie est pour la première fois retrouvée chez le naturaliste de la troisième circumnavigation de James Cook, James Forster. 1344-1347. Island geology and migration Heyerdahl constructed a raft of balsa wood based on historical accounts of “Peruvian reed-boats,” which bore some similarities to a “rudimentary ‘raft-ship’” found in Tahiti (Heyerdahl, 23). (9) Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii. Easter… The researchers grouped subjects’ DNA into three “major lineage clusters,” all of which share common nucleotide deletions or substitutions. Clark highlights the existence of trade and the transport of goods from one island to another, and while he does not explicitly argue for the existence of inter-island exchange of people it is not difficult to imagine that this would exist among a people for whom trade was so well-established. While the 1986 winds were unusual, Finney estimates similar patterns in one of ten years (Finney, 405), and given that the migration across the Pacific took place across hundreds of years, this is a more than sufficient frequency for these so-called “anomalous westerlies” to have played a role in dispersal. Similarly, biological researchers have been able to link settlements through the remains of animals introduced by voyagers, particularly the Polynesian rat (R. exulans). The Marquesas Islands were reached between 200 BC and 300 AD, and although the evidence is so … Web. Much of the evidence sensationalized by Kon-Tiki can also be used to support prehistoric contact; while Heyerdahl did not have sufficient proof to back up his claims, biological and cultural similarities between the two regions may suggest trade or other short-term voyaging. Additionally, Polynesian society was highly stratified, and territory was divided between ari’i, or noble families. While research is still in progress, preliminary results have traced adzes found on Henderson Island clearly to a source on Pitcairn, and one to the Gambier Islands (Weisler 2, 1884). American Anthropologist 90.2 (1988): 401-05. Their first thought was, ‘How did they get here?’ Over the past two centuries, anthropologists, archaeologists, scientists and historians have been trying to pinpoint the … Current Anthropology 39.4 (1998): 521-32. when people were "responding to population pressure." (10) The Polynesians Prehistory of an Island People. They reconstructed a double-hulled voyaging canoe in order to test both its seaworthiness and the efficacy of traditional (i.e., noninstrumental) navigation methods over the long ocean routes that Polynesians had once … 11 Jan. 2011. Théories anciennes Théorie de la migration par vagues de Beyer. While west-to-east migration is nearly universally accepted in the academic world, there is some interesting evidence suggesting prehistoric contact, if not migration, between Pacific Islanders and Amerindians in modern-day Peru. This was believed to occur over centuries, among a seafaring people known for their exploration and skilled knowledge of their oceanic environment. Migration Theories Culture and Society; Resources and Environment; Maori Toggle Dropdown. However, while he proved that such a voyage could theoretically occur, he lacked evidence to prove that such a voyage in fact had occurred. Pukui. La théorie ancienne la plus connue du peuplement préhistorique des Philippines est celle de H. Otley Beyer, fondateur du Département d'anthropologie de l'Université des Philippines.Beyer a exercé une grande influence sur la première génération d'historiens et d'anthropologues philippins [7]. According to the Field Museum of Chicago, new understanding in the iconography–now interpreted to represent sea turtles–helps to “fill the temporal gap between practices and beliefs in Lapita times and the present day” (Field Museum). "Myth, Experiment, and the Reinvention of Polynesian Voyaging." Heyerdahl’s experimental voyage was widely publicized and was the accepted narrative for Polynesian migration for decades. Society for Science and the Public Oct 10, 1987 132.15: 232-33. People across the Pacific also speak similar Austronesian languages, which Terrell describes as “the inheritance of ancestral characteristics by the direct biological, cultural and linguistic descendants of the people who first started speaking in these ways” (Terrell, 4). Web. Setting off in simple rafts, they gradually dispersed through the large islands of South-East Asia. It is of particular interest for understanding the origins of the both Today, however, strong linguistic, cultural, and archaeological evidence from research in both the physical and social sciences points to colonization originating in Southeast Asia or Indonesia. The presence of sweet potatoes in Polynesia, for example, which are native to South America, suggests that the two civilizations must have had some interaction. Researchers at the museum now believe the “ceramic portraits” could be “ways of expressing religious ideas held by early Pacific Islanders” (Field Museum), which helps explain the significance of the design and supports the hypothesis that Pacific Islanders originated from a single people. The similarity in iconography is unlikely to be coincidental, especially if it had religious significance, because this suggests a coherent belief system that may have spread as a whole. Pacific migrations: red arrows show expansion from island southeast Asia, blue arrows show Polynesian expansion, yellow arrows show proposed contact with the Americas. “Deciphering the riddle of Lapita.” Pacific Anthropology at the Field Museum. Did the people who would become Polynesian occupy the islands and atolls in the region in carefully planned stages or by a series of happy accidents? Weisler, Marshall I. Excerpts from the … However, there is evidence of trade and contact among disparate Pacific Island societies, and it is possible that Polynesians may have come in contact with those to both their east and west. 7 Jan. 2011. Print. More than a million years ago an ancient type of human, known as Homo erectus, moved from Africa as far as the coast of mainland South-East Asia. Given the Church’s prominent evangelization efforts in Polynesia, as well as its active media presence, its propagations of these beliefs are influential. Lum, J. Kohi et al. His July 1986 excursion on the Hokule‘a, a historically reconstructed Hawaiian voyaging canoe, found that “during the voyage those days in which winds blew from an easterly, trade wind direction were outnumbered by those days in which the wind blew from the north, northwest, southwest, and south, all directions favorable for sailing to the east” (Finney, 403). Furthermore, at least in Maori society, “the exchange of commodities between one group and another, despite their bellicosity and rivalry, was well-developed.” (Clark, 24). "Canoe Voyage of Otahiti Nui." As shown, there is believable proof that the Maori transmigrated from Polynesia. The combination of these two studies strongly implies that Polynesians are descended from Melanesians and more distantly from Southeast Asians, but are genetically distinct from indigenous South Americans in locations such as Peru and Colombia. Maamaatuaiahutapu, Keitapu. JSTOR. By contrast, a similar study was conducted in South America, with the result that Amerindians were found to be “distinct from those [mutations] found among potential ancestral populations in Asia and elsewhere” (Rickards, 525). JSTOR. Some researchers think El Niño … Polynesian Migration RoutesPolynesian centers. Ben Finney, both an anthropologist and a founding member of the Polynesian Voyaging Society, found that periodically, Southern Hemisphere trade winds weaken and weaker westerly winds prevail. Web. The human settlement of the Pacific in general, and the origin of the Polynesians in particular, have been topics of debate for over two centuries. The Express Train Hypothesis says that Polynesians come originally from Taiwan by way of the Philippines and Melanesia. When European explorers discovered the Polynesian people on there islands, there was a consistent present of the slim built Polynesian … Instead, Heyerdahl proposed that the Polynesians must have left the west coast of … Artifacts created from volcanic rocks can be traced back to their sources using both design of the object and chemical composition. Polynesia in Early Historic times. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. “The winds were favourable for Polynesian migration in this couple of hundred year period,” Ian says. In a speech given at the Society for American Archaeology meeting in 1997, John Edward Terrell of Chicago’s Field Museum acknowledged that motives for migration are too impossibly complex to determine centuries after the occurrence (Terrell, 2). According to many tribal narratives, Kupe was the first Pacific explorer to discover the islands of New Zealand. A Norwegian adventurer named Thor Heyerdahl argued in 1947 that all the experts had it wrong. "Prehistoric Polynesian Puzzle." The patterns occur when waters of the tropical eastern Pacific warm up. Stories as to the ancestors of the Tuvaluans vary from island to island. J.-C., des migrations … 3.1 Théories abandonnées. Because islands have finite resources, changes in marine ecosystems or weather could easily impact food supplies and place strain on a growing society. The DNA of animal bones can be analyzed, and researchers E. Matisoo-Smith and J.H. When we talk about migration, it is important to distinguish between some terms that, although they are quite similar, they have different connotations.So, let’s look at them separately.The first term that we need to Heyerdahl, Thor. American Anthropologist 87.1 (1985): 9-26. JSTOR. JSTOR. ... Trois modèles ont été élaborés sur la migration de cette population de Taiwan vers la Polynésie [15] : Express Train model; D'après ce modèle élaboré dès 1985 par l'archéologue Peter Bellwood, vers 2 500 av. This causes the prevailing south-easterly trade winds to weaken, while the frequency of westerly winds increases. Despite predominant easterly winds in the subtropical Pacific, Polynesian navigational skills and the aid of cyclic or seasonal changes in the winds and currents enabled dispersal from the western Pacific to islands as distant as Easter Island and Hawaii. Lecture. The path of the Lapita is marked by pottery with distinct geometric designs found in more than 200 South Pacific locations, from Papua New Guinea to Samoa (Field Museum). APPENDIX: FIGURE 2. According to this view, Polynesians are mainly a part of a migration wave that came out of Taiwan. The church teaches that “among Polynesian ancestors were the people of Hagoth, who set sail from Nephite lands in approximately 54 BC“ (1111). Prior to the existence of scientific evidence such as DNA and geochemical analysis, speculation regarding Pacific Islanders’ origins often suggested origin in the Americas, based on certain cultural and biological similarities between the two regions’ indigenous societies. In short, the reasons that Pacific peoples dispersed from west to east may never be known, given the complexity of human decision making; there were probably a host of factors involved, including a limitation of resources but also including various other socio-emotional reasons. The first explorers had no maps or navigational instruments, and there has been spirited debate among sailors and scholars as to how they settled the region. L'Océanie est un ensemble géographique dont les frontières sont discutées, mais qui regroupe généralement l'Australie, la Nouvelle-Guinée, la Mélanésie, la Micronésie et la Polynésie [Note 1]. These are outlined well by Kayser et al. Cultural similarities, such as the presence of outriggers on canoes from New Zealand to Melanesia to the Society Archipelago, also point to a shared ancestry. However, we must exercise caution when attempting to speculate or oversimplify motives for such distant historical events. 11 Jan. 2011. The first people arrived in the Western Pacific areas of Australia and New Guinea at least 50-60,000 years ago, according to Terrell (Terrell, 5). Follow their pattern of settlement Lesson Objectives: What do scientist believe how the Polynesians settle such small islands in the middle of the world's largest ocean? The origin of Polynesians, an isolated population spanning hundreds of miles of ocean and islands, has long been regarded as an interesting puzzle in human migration patterns. Cook chose the "East Indias" as the origin point for the Polynesian migration because a linguistic Sailing with Cook as his botanist was Joseph Banks, … Today, however, strong linguistic, cultural, and archaeological evidence from research in both the physical and social sciences points to colonization originating in Southeast Asia or Indonesia. (Phys.org) —Two teams of researchers describe new developments in understanding early Polynesian migration. On maps a geological division called the Andesite Line runs between the two regions; oceanic islands lie to the east of the line. While the myth of Amerindian origin has been debunked in the academic community for decades, highly publicized dissenters cloud the general public’s perception of ancient Polynesian migration. Maamaatuaiahutapu, Keitapu. American Association for the Advancement of Science March 2, 2001 291.5509: 1735-737. Samoan Migration: … The western part of Polynesia was settled between 3000 and 1000 BC by people from Taiwan via the Philippines as well as parts of New Guinea. Continental islands lie in the western Pacific, and oceanic islands in the eastern Pacific. It would have been pointless to send migratory canoes carrying people, plants and animals. Lawler, Andrew. Stone tools dated to around 800,000 years ago have been found on the island of Flores, midway between Java and Australia. Over the past two centuries, anthropologists, archaeologists, scientists and historians have been trying to pinpoint the origins of Polynesians and to explain how they spread across the region we today call Polynesia...a number of issues still cause debate among specialists on the subject. Web. The group found common genetic mutations among about 30-40% of East Asians and nearly all Polynesians and many Hawaiians studied (Lum, 571). 567-590. Theories about Polynesian origins: When European explorers sailed into the Pacific in the eighteenth century , they were stunned to find so many people living on the thousands of islands they encountered. Using these methods, Weisler was able to cluster artifacts found in various locations on the Society Islands and Mangareva to specific source sites: Eiao in the Marquesas, and Mata’are in the Cook Islands (Weisler, 526 – check.) migration and is commonly referred to as Wallacea. The author and a small crew, with neither sailing experience nor archaeological training, embarked on a voyage from Peru to Tahiti in 1947 that met with remarkably positive results. JSTOR. “Polynesian mitochondrial DNAs reveal three deep maternal lineage clusters.”Human Biology 66.4 August 1994. Stone tools are an important element of the “systemic cultural systems,” and similarities across the Pacific can be tracked. The two main theories today are called the Express Train Hypothesis and the Slow Boat Hypothesis. Archaeology suggests that the migration eastward occurred in roughly two waves, the first occurring in the Bismarck Archipelago, Samoa and Tonga from 1600–1200 BC, and the second occurring later and spreading to the outer reaches of the Polynesian Triangle, bordered by Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand. However little evidence supports his theory apart from the use of sweet potatoes in both areas. Gibbons, Ann. Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories speculate about possible visits to or interactions with the Americas, the indigenous peoples of the Americas, or both, by people from Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania at a time prior to Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Caribbean in 1492 (i.e., during any part of the pre-Columbian era). What evidence does he use? Anthropologist Marshall Weisler’s “Hard Evidence for Prehistoric Interaction in Polynesia” uses x-ray fluorescence and analysis of chemical factors such as alkali composition and extent of melting and cooling to divide a cross-section of basaltic artifacts into categories, which likely correspond to rough source locations. It is possible that El Niño made some long Polynesian canoe voyages into the east easier than they might have been during normal Pacific weather patterns. JSTOR. Essentially, the similarities observed in Polynesian peoples across the Pacific, including building styles and language, suggest common ancestry. Science March 2, 2001 291.5509: 1735-737 would have been found on the island of Flores midway., isolated far to the ancestors of the Philippines and Melanesia occur waters. Similar genetic mutations in Hawaiians and polynesian migration theories suggests common family lineages in two distant. 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