SemanticS ‘’Semantics is the study of meaning in language.’’ ‘’Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used by humans to express themselves through language.’’ (Hurford, Heasley & Smith, 2007) 3. A fourth, very important aspect of meaning is connotation. Semantics deals with the literal meaning of sentences. SENSE RELATIONS I SYNONYMY & ANTONYMY 1.SYNONYMY • refers to ‘sameness of m.’, s. relation in which different l. forms have the ?same? We deal with relationships inside the language. definite, indefinite articles •a person, the person •Not all words contain a referent in the real world •unicorn Lexical Semantics: Reference •Words also refer to (concrete or abstract) things •reference to specific entity (a referent) •Bill, the White House, Paris •reference to set of entities •person, house, city •cf. Sense relations1: Reference, denotation and connotation Sense, reference and denotation are three aspects of what is commonly conveyed by the loose term ‘meaning’. Pragmatics deals with what ... depends on a contextually-determined reference of the demonstrative. The world X1 x2 language The world y X language Both reference and sense are different but related aspects of semantics • 2. For example: 'The husband of Barbara Bush is the President who succeeded Ronald Reagan.' A term's reference IS the object it refers to. REFERENCE SENSE 4. ... Semantics, is the study of . Its sense is HOW it refers to that object." If the reference of a sign is an object perceivable by the senses, my idea of it is an internal image, [5] arising from memories of sense impressions which I have had and acts, both internal and external, which I … If semantics is a science, it cannot operate m. • synonymy=symmetric hyponymy e.g.all children are kids-all kids are children • English-rich in synonyms (2 vocabulary sources) The reference and sense of a sign are to be distinguished from the [p25] associated idea. "sense and reference are two different aspects of the meaning of some kinds of terms. The reference of a word is the thing, event, or state that it points to in the world. RefeRence Reference deals with the relationship between language and the world. * * Frege’s paper, “On Sense and Reference,” is widely considered the beginning of analytic philosophy. - Reference is something haring physical existence. Unfortunately, the path is rugged and progress is slow. I guess the Reference is: A [former] President of the USA (George Bush senior); Reference - By means of reference a speaker indicates which thing or people are being talked about . PDF | The paper delves into the semantic field to establish sense as an important category within the domain of conceptual or cognitive meaning. Reference, Sense, and Lexical Relations An important traditional distinction in lexical semantics, as most influentially articulated by Frege (1980 [1892]) and Saussure (1983 [1916]), is between reference and sense. Sense and Reference Foundations of Semantics LING 130 James Pustejovsky Thanks to Dan Wedgewood of U. Edinburgh for use of some slides A picture of the grammar But remember what we had to do to get from linguistically encoded meaning to the proposition expressed:!Assign reference We won’t be able to go into the issues here. Sense and Reference, p. 3 calculus to incorporate Frege’s insights. You can find in in many anthologies. The Sense/Reference Distinction in Constructive Semantics PER MARTIN-LÖF Transcription of a lecture read at a conference on Frege organised by Göran Sundholm at Leiden, 25 August 2001. 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