Epimax also completely eradicated Staphylococcus aureus with higher rate compared to two other disinfectants. The most frequently identified microorganisms are Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus species, Escherichia coli species, Actinomyces species, Antitratus species, Pseudomonas species, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida species [3]. The most common chemical disinfectants which are used by dentists are alcohols, aldehydes, chlorine combination, phenols, biguanides, iodide combinations, and ammonium [7]. 2012-01-01 00:00:00 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in its infection control guidelines, indicated that dental impressions are potential sources of … Among different types of disinfectant agents, Epimax showed promising results in 10 minutes as it completely eradicated all kinds of microorganisms. A. Molinari, “Infection control in prosthodontics: a choice no longer,”, A. Ghahramanloo, A. Sadeghian, K. Sohrabi, and A. Bidi, “A microbiologic investigation following the disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid materials using the spray method,”, X. Lepe and G. H. Johnson, “Accuracy of polyether and addition silicone after long-term immersion disinfection,”, H. S. Westerholm II, D. V. Bradley Jr., and R. S. Schwartz, “Efficacy of various spray disinfectants on irreversible hydrocolloid impressions,”, F. A. Rueggeberg, F. E. Beall, M. T. Kelly, and G. S. Schuster, “Sodium hypochlorite disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impression material,”, J. Szyma ska, “Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Gelson Luís Adabo et al investigated the effect of disinfection methods on the dimensional stability of 6 elastomeric materials. These are also known as protoplasmic poisons. J Prosthet Dent. Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. Polyvinyl siloxane impression materials were disinfected with microwaves with no changes in physical properties of impression material.30, Cast disinfection: Microorganisms have been recovered from dental cast as well. %0.525 sodium hypochlorite and Deconex eliminated 97.12% and 95.39% of Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. This involves cleaning all surfaces of dental instruments to remove blood, microbes, and debris, and to prepare instruments for sterilization or disinfection. The standard inoculums were prepared to match the turbidity of However, studies show that among the population, the spreading rate of Staphylococcus aureus to the nasopharynx is only 10% [13]. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of chemical disinfection and microwave irradiation on the surface hardness and roughness of two commercially available hard relining materials (Ufi Gel hard, GC Kooliner) and one denture base resin (Trevalon).Materials and Methods: A total of 72 specimens (n = 24) were divided into four groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of disinfectant agents on alginate impression material after 5 and 10 minutes. Table 2: Types of Disinfectants.4,13,14,15. It is recognised that immersion disinfection can have deleterious effects on some proper-ties of the impression materials, for example dimensional accuracy, stability and wettability10-12. Rev. Takigawa T, Endo Y. Also, pressure while taking an impression and saliva can alter bacterial adherence capacity. This is the reason that in this survey Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected to investigate the disinfection efficacy of disinfectant agents. Its activity declines in the presence of organic matter because its activity depends on specific pH.23, 2% chlorhexidine has shown activity against s.aureus,e.coli,b.surbititis, but no antifungal activity was seen in agar diffusion test at low concentration.0.2% chlorhexidine disinfectant solution can be used as water substitute in alginate mixing. Although it is considered as the best disinfectant for cold sterilization of medical equipment, it also has many health hazards including irritation to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. A double-blind peer review system is followed to ensure a high quality of publications. Except for control samples, all of them were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite 0.525, Deconex, and Epimax by way of spraying. Elastomeric Impression Materials. One of the drawbacks of the present study is that it was an in vitro experimental study, which is different from clinical and in vivo situations. Cleaning of instruments is usually performed with water or detergents. Official Journal of the Pakistan Dental Association. The efficiency of disinfection methods and their adverse effects on the materials are being evaluated since 19743. Introduction. / In Prac. The suspensions of After 24 and 48 hours incubation, the grown bacterial colonies on culture were counted. Savabi O, Nejatidanesh F, Bagheri KP, Karimi L, Savabi G. Prevention of cross-contamination risk by disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials with ozonated water. In the present survey, 0.525% hypochlorite sodium agent which is common in housework was used. Appropriate application (time of contact). Ozonated water can reduce the number of microorganisms on the surface of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials and by increasing time of immersion   more effective disinfection can be achieved.28, Microwave irradiation: Microwaves cause disruption of cell membrane integrity and cell metabolism which ultimately leads to microbial death.3 Microwaves are simple to use, low in cost and provide good disinfection. 2008; 36(2):104-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.11.008, Choi YR, Kim KN, Kim KM. 5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.25301/JPDA.274.207, Received: 27 July 2018, Accepted: 02 August 2018. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to identify the different disinfection methods and materials and the existing evidence on their effect on properties of the different impression materials. 1992;68(1):191-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(92)90303-R, Touyz LZ, Rosen M. Disinfection of alginate impression material using disinfectants as mixing and soak solutions. In this in vitro experimental study, 66 circular samples of alginate impression material were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans fungus. Fukuzaki S. Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite incleaning and disinfection processes. The impressions were put in sterile test tubes separately with 1 cc of microbial suspension each and then incubated at 35°C for one hour. Correia-Sousa J, Tabaio AM, Silva A, Pereira T, Sampaio-MaiaB, Vasconcelos M. The effect of water and sodium hypochlorite disinfection on alginate impressions. ). Muhammad Asif Mushtaq1                                                 BDS, Muhammad Waseem Ullah Khan2                                  BDS, FCPS. However, it should be emphasized that the findings of the present study are not completely in agreement with the results of other studies as different brands of impression materials with different methods were being applied in these studies. For Candida albicans fungus, the samples were taken from 48 hour Saborosa and Dextrose agar cultures. Surface detail, compressive strength, and dimensional accuracy of gypsum casts after repeated mmersion in hypochlorite solution. Braz. In some studies, it has been declared that washing the impression materials with tap water only removes 40% of bacteria; however, some studies reported that it has the capacity to reduce 90%, microorganisms [6]. Disinfection and sterilization methods are used to achieve   disinfection and sterility of the medical and surgical instruments. Effects of glutaraldehyde exposure on human health. Two methods of disinfection of dental impression materials are commonly used; spray disinfection and immersion disinfection. Kollu S, Hegde V, Pentapati KC. 2018]. The statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences in the mechanical properties of the three alginate impression materials, the two mixing methods and the disinfectant. 2006;48(2):75-87. Dentures are being disinfected with microwaves and are found better disinfected than Naocl. Both spraying and immersing decrease surface details to the same extent. Rentzia A, Coleman DC, O’Donnell MJ, Dowling AH, O’SullivanM. Infection control: the role of disinfectionand sterilization. It was shown that immersion method cause dimensional distortion in both anterior and posterior segments. Int J Pharm Sci Res;2016;7(8):661-64. Resident, FCPS Department of  Prosthodontics, and Punjab DentalHospital/ de’Montmorency College of dentistry. Disinfection with 2% glutaraldehyde solution showed a slight expanding effect on the dimensional stability of the hydrophilic silicone rubber impression materials (less than 0.03%). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of disinfectant agents on alginate impression material after 5 and 10 minutes. It was observed that Epimax is more efficient in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus compared to two others disinfectant agents. < But immersion is not the method of choice for hydrocolloids material as they are extremely hydrophilic.3,34, In 1996, the American Dental Association council on dental materials endorsed immersion for polysulphide and addition silicone impression material whereas spraying with chlorine compound was advocated for disinfection of polyether impression material for 2-3 min.35 UV rays can be used for disinfection of water supplies, laboratory equipment, dental headpieces, dental impression and implants. wearing butyl or nitrile gloves, closed system for solution handling, exhaust ventilation of the places of handling and keeping the temperature of the solution low as it will reduce the airborne concentration of the solution.17, Sodium hypochlorite: It provides intermediate level disinfection and has a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. 926. Spray disinfection and immersion disinfection are the two methods of impression disinfection. Percentage of bacterial growth prevention by different disinfectant agents in 5 and 10 minutes. The International Dental Federation (IDF) insists on disinfecting all impressions taken from patients before sending them to laboratories [4]. J Am Dent Assoc; 1996;127(5):672-80. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1996.0280, Abdullah MA. Disinfection by soaking in chemical materials has been shown to cover all surfaces of impression materials in one time [8], while spraying is not capable of disinfecting all surfaces effectively and also cannot cover all undercuts. In addition to that, each publication undergoes a plagiarism check with Turnitin. An Overview of Dental Impression Disinfection Techniques A Literature Review, Reclassifying The Faculty Status of Demonstrators in Pakistani Dental Colleges and some Suggestions on Building The Future Faculty. In another study, Rueggeberg et al. 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